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Caesium peroxides

Three peroxides have been prepared by heating the metal in aluminium vessels with the calculated proportions of oxygen, or by the action of oxygen on a solution of the metal in liquid ammonia at -50° to -70° C. Caesium dioxide, Cs2O2, forms yellowish, acicular crystals, which become brown with rise of temperature, and at 400° to 450° C, melt to a black liquid. At 650° C. it begins to decompose with evolution of oxygen. It has a density of 4.47 at 15° C. It dissolves slowly in slightly acidulated water, forming hydrogen peroxide. The heat of formation from its elements is 107.0 Cal. Caesium trioxide, Cs2O3, is a black substance, melting at 400° C., the density at 0° C. being 4.25. With water it evolves oxygen, forming hydrogen peroxide. The heat of formation of the trioxide from its elements is 127.46 Cal. Caesium tetroxide, Cs2O4, is formed by oxidizing the metal between 300° and 350° C. It is a golden-yellow, crystalline powder, melting in an oxygen atmosphere at 518° C., the density at 0° C. being 3.68, and at 19° C. 3.77. It darkens with rise of temperature, and decomposes readily. With moisture it deliquesces and reacts in accordance with the equation

Cs2O4+2H2O = 2CsOH+H2O2+O2.

Heating with carbon dioxide forms the caesium carbonate and ozone:

Cs2O4+CO2=Cs2CO3+O3.

It is reduced by hydrogen. The heat of formation from the elements is 141.46 Cal.

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